Monday, August 24, 2020
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Isolation and Disenfranchisement of African-Americans from 1875 to 1900 - Research Paper Example These isolations and disappointment were seen in both the Southern and Northern states (Andrews 54). After the American Civil war in 1870, the support of the Fifteenth Amendment on the American constitution followed, keeping any state from denying any male resident the option to cast a ballot dependent on racial prejudgments. The African American people group made up the greater part populace in states, for example, Mississippi and Louisiana other than framing a sizeable populace in other previous Confederate states. The whites in these states opposed the privileges of the freedman to practice political force, will, and right. The whites dreaded dark strength and rehearsed savagery, deaths, and terrorizing to frustrate the endeavors of the freedman to take an interest in dynamic legislative issues in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Thus, Black democratic diminished amazingly in most Southern States allowing white democrats to recapture control of the political workplaces of the area (Rable 103). This exploration endeavors to backtrack the advancements that occurred concerning isolation and disappointment of African Americans from 1875 to 1900. Isolation and Disenfranchisement of African-Americans (1875-1900) In 1875, the Congress affirmed the main Civil Rights Act that guaranteed the dark network equivalent rights in eateries, theaters, juries and transportation. The law was anyway brought down in 1883 on court orders, with the court taking the position that the Constitution orders the Congress to act just on separation by government and not by residents. Other than the court framework, there were different powers that stubbornly battled to guarantee the African American Community didn't practice their entitlement to cast a ballot. For instance, a paramilitary gathering called the Red Shirts, framed in Mississippi 1875, battled against racial balance in North and South Carolina (DuBois 26). It was an efficient and open society comprising of furnishe d confederate warriors that worked for political points. This gathering proposed to expel the republicans from office and alarm the freedmen to shield them from casting a ballot. The Red Shirts was only one of the gatherings in the Southern States that were resolved to get the dark network far from the surveys and guarantee a white majority rule assumed control over the southern governments in the appointment of 1876 (Kousser 85). The other model that feature racial isolation in late nineteenth century was the Battle of Little Big Horn, which the Cheyenne Indians and Sioux won 1876 with the murdering of General Custer George. This fight was an outcome of proceeded with infringement of the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty that saw white Americans move in huge numbers to look for gold operating at a profit Hills. This was an interruption into African American domain and intrusion of property. In the political circles, the appointment of President Rutherford Hayes in 1877 saw Reconstruction po und to a stop. The majority of the government troopers in the south were pulled back and those that remained did little to secure the privileges of the African American Community. This year additionally saw the arrival of the Ã¢â¬Ëhome ruleÃ¢â¬â¢ to the beforehand secessionist states. With the arrival of this standard started the reviving of racial oppression, racial isolation, and disappointment of the freedman. Thus, strikes and demonstrations were sorted out with the principal national strike happening in this period. This savage strike that was aimed at the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad organization saw the demise of 19 individuals (DuBois 39). The
Thursday, July 16, 2020
What Your Instructors Wish You Knew About Papers (0) Have you ever wondered what your professors are really looking for in a paper? It always seems like they want much more than they put on the rubric or that their directions are so detailed that it feels almost impossible to get it right! While every instructor is different, there are a few things that most of them wish their students knew. 1. Follow directions Yes, something that comes with a roadmap! Your assignment might have detailed requirements or just a general outline; either way, make sure to fulfill those requirements! Itâs the best way to avoid missing points for easily avoidable things. Your directions wonât be more than 1-2 pages, so it should only take a few minutes to read them all. 2. Donât be afraid to ask questions Itâs okay to have questions about the assignment, and instructors are usually happy to clarify. Asking for help doesnât mean youâre a bad studentâ"knowing when to ask for help is the mark of a confident, successful student, and professors are likely to remember that. Your instructors arenât your only source of help when it comes to writing papers. The librarians at your library are a great source to help narrow down your research so that you donât flounder in a sea of too much potential information. Many have department-specific librarians, so check there for sure. And if the essay itself is giving you trouble, try your campus writing center or writing tutors. While they might not be able to tell you the unspoken quirks of a particular professorâs preferred style, they can help you with structure, strong thesis statements, and more. 3. Prep before you write You might not think so, but professors can tell when a paper was thrown together without much preparation. It shows up in the depth of research and the focus of the paper in particular. The most important thing to do before you start a paper is to craft a particular question or theory around which to focus your efforts a pre-thesis, if you will. You can refine it into your actual thesis as you outline. Creating an outline is also important. It is a blueprint of your essay and will help you stay organized. 4. Vary your sources Itâs tempting, when you find a source that fits your topic perfectly, to just use it throughout the research paper and stop there. Or perhaps you found a particular academic journal that talks about the topic a lot. Even aside from the fact that many assignments will require certain numbers or types of sources, instructors will often prefer to see a variety of research. It demonstrates that youâve done your due diligence, but also that youâve considered multiple perspectives on your argument, which always strengthens it. Pro tip: As you collect your sources, start citing them! Even if you donât end up using them all, itâll help ensure that you donât accidentally forget a source and commit unintentional plagiarism. If you have to do an annotated bibliography in MLA or another style, also add your notes (or annotations) when you cite and while the source information is still fresh in your head. 5. Avoid tangents It happens to the best of us: youâre writing away, building your argumentsâ¦ and suddenly youâve found yourself on a completely unrelated tangent (Example: You started off examining factors that led to the Civil War, then strayed into talking about war movies). Or, perhaps, you need to pad out your paper a bit and are tempted to shoehorn in something tangentially-related. This is a sign of a disorganized essay and can weaken an otherwise strong paper. Stay focused on your topic and make sure that every sentence and fact directly support your thesis. 6. Be honest True, youâll probably have to write college papers about research paper topics you donât like or care much about. Even so, try to be as honest as you canâ"writing a paper with an argument you thoroughly donât believe in will often result in weaker arguments and flowery, inauthentic prose. Instead of trying to restate a common or easy idea (that your professors have probably read many times before), see if you can find your own take on it. 7. Cite your sources Itâs such a simple thing, but itâs the fastest way to frustrate a professor: forgetting to cite your sources. Not only is it required to avoid plagiarism and for formatting, but it also shows that you paid attention to detail and lets instructors see how you came to your conclusions. MLA format is a common citation style, as is APA and Chicago Manual of Style. Consult your teacher if youâre unsure of which to use. 8. Proofread! There are few things as frustrating as a wonderfully-argued paper that contains tons of grammar and spelling errors. Run a paper checkâ"either on your own or using tools like the EasyBib Plus grammar checkerâ"before submitting! With these tips, you should be well on your way to mastering the art of the college essay and impressing your instructors along the way! Good writing starts with knowing the basics. Thatâs why we created these grammar guides! Learn to identify irregular verbs, build up your mental list of adverbs, see examples of interjections, and more!
Thursday, May 21, 2020
Many people with mental disorders face challenges every day. This is an ongoing struggle that nearly Ã¢â¬Å"1 out of every 5 AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s deal with each yearÃ¢â¬ (NAMI1). A person I know who deals with these challenges is a woman named Janet Miller a devoted single mother who fears her son will get taken away. We will be focusing on the effects of mental illness has on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Ã¢â¬Å"When I was twenty-three years old I received the most horrifying and devastating information. I was diagnosed with several mental health disorders. My diagnosis consisted of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Bi-Polar, Anxiety, Schizophrenia, and Depression. Around the same time, I was diagnosed, I found out I was pregnant,Ã¢â¬ said Janet, a Certified NursingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(Fitch 1) As her pregnancy came to an end Janet began to worry about her childÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional health and most importantly his mental health. She knew that mental disorders could be genetically inherited. She was scared because she knew that some of her disorders were some of the major ones to be genetically passed down. Janet added that the possibilities were endless because it runs in her family. She didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know much about her childÃ¢â¬â¢s father and she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really want to get him involved. Therefore, not a lot of people knew about her pregnancy only immediate fam ily. Jr Thorpe reported that Ã¢â¬Å"The numbers don t lie: a parent with schizophrenia gives a child a 40 percent chance of developing it too, even if they aren t in the parent s care.Ã¢â¬ Thorpe also states that for Ã¢â¬Å"depression around 40 percent of all sufferers who ve sought help seem to be able to identify at least one close family member with the same problem. The number may be even higherÃ¢â¬ (Thorpe 1). When asked how would you feel if your child inherited your disorders Janet replied: Ã¢â¬Å"I would feel horrible! I already feel like a terrible mother, but giving these issues to my children would really be devastating. I would feel like I have doomed my child with a life of problems.Ã¢â¬ Janet gave birth to a beautiful baby boy who she named Carter.Show MoreRelatedMental Illness And Its Effects On A Person s Life1558 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThere are numerous questions surrounding mental health, such as whether it is mainly caused by chemical imbalances in the brain or horrible situations, if some types are actual issues or something made up by companies to capitalize on the industry. Mental illness is a major controversy in the world, whether society wants to admit it or not. Anyone suffering from a mental illness can be classified as crazy, weird, or even attention seeking, which worsens their situation. These people need supportRead MoreMental Illness And Its Effects On A Person s Life1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAll mental illnesses fit into five main categories; anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia/psychotic disorders, eating disorders, and dementias. These illnesses have crippling effects on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. They change someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s physical health, how they interact with the world, and how they perceive and address situations. An occurrence that would have no effect on someone with no mental issue, distorts the view of someone with a mental illness, into either a negative or positive issue, andRead MoreMetaphors : Metaphors And Mental Health1706 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesScience Metaphors and Mental Health In today s day and age, while we have made tremendous strides in our understanding of mental disorders in the medical community, society seems to have slowed in our progress of being understanding, and the usage of derogatory language regarding mental health issues. Oh yeah, that one s nuttier than a pecan farm, was heard by this author recently at a restaurant. Even casual conversations are sprinkled with phrases like, Ã¢â¬Å"that s crazy!Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"that s insane!Ã¢â¬ But whatRead MoreMental Illness Is Not Like A Headache1142 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Mental illness affects many people in the world. As people are able to learn more and science improves more therapies become available. However as with all treatments there is a number of issues one must consider when deciding on the right therapy. Mental illness is not like a headache where one knows what is wrong and can take a aspirin. Mental illness varies in so many ways that treatment varies among everyone who suffers from the disease. When dealing with mental illness the need for treatmentRead MoreMental Illness : Are They Noticed?1067 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThat was a treatment they used on people. In the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s people with mental disorders did not have any rights. They were caged, chained, and treated like animals. Mental illness is vital to know about because those who suffer from mental disorders were treated harshly and doing so did not help, people who treated them harsh did not understand what it is like to have the disorder, and it is not their fault they were born that way. Mental illness can affect different areas of the body. Ã¢â¬Å"Abnormal behaviorRead MoreMental Illness And Mental Health1222 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMental Illness. Lots of times when we hear these words people assume that there is something critically wrong with that person. Sometimes there is but most people who struggle with a mental illness or disorder are everyday people that you pass on the street. Just because they have a mental Issue does not necessarily mean that they are much different than you or me. In fact if an individual is being treated for his or her mental illness it can be difficult to recognize that they even have one. ThereRead MoreDepression And Its Effects On Society1463 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAdolescent Depression Depression is a common mental illness that can affect anyone at any age and causes issues for their daily lives and and has a significant impact on adolescents. Adolescents are prime targets for depression because they are still maturing making the causes of depression, such as a traumatic event or simply bullying, have a larger impact on their mental health. Depression is an illness that not only affects those who have it but the people around them due to the need of supportRead MoreIntroduction.... Ã¢â¬Å"If Mental Illness Could Be Seen On A1255 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction... Ã¢â¬Å"If mental illness could be seen on a sufferer maybe society wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t say Ã¢â¬Ëjust get over itÃ¢â¬â¢ .Ã¢â¬ Mental illness unlike other diseases or disorders are, for the most part invisible. They are not easily recognised. These instances of being told to Ã¢â¬Å"just get over itÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"just calm downÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s all in your headÃ¢â¬ are direct evidence of the stigma of having mental illness present in some cultures. A mental illness is in fact in your head, but your head is connected to body, they areRead More Treating Concurrent Disorders Essay1700 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Mental health is being aware, accepting yourself, and striking a balance in all aspects of your life like social, spiritual, physical, economical, and mental (Association, 2001). Mental health can be described as our positive interactions with the context and events in our life, and having the ability to cope with lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s stressors. Mental health problems can begin at anytime during your life (CAMH, 2010). In fact anything can make it difficult for an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to interact effectivelyRead MoreThere Has Been An Increase In The Proportion Of Persons Who Associate Mental Illness With Dangerousness1675 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Ã¢â¬Å"There has been an increase in the proportion of persons who associate mental illness with dangerousness, violence, and unpredictabilityÃ¢â¬ (Markowitz, 2005: 3) With reference to this statement, what is the public understanding of the nature and extent of mental disorder and how accurate is this? Intro This essay will look at the public understanding of the nature of mental disorder and to what extent it is associated with dangerousness and violence. The essay will begin by exploring the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
As I sat in one of the booths at a coffee shop, I brainstormed about what book to read for this final project. I contemplated a few I would like to re-read, there is the gunslinger series by Steven King, but some of the books in the series are better than others, and I hate Ã¢â¬Å"The Dark TowerÃ¢â¬ book where Oy dies. I deliberated about reading Rumo again by Walter Moers, but that book is lengthy. Ultimately, I decided to re-read the first book of the Night Angel series written by Brent Weeks. I concluded that it would be best to use the first book in the series. Since the story line is so intricate, if I attempted to use the second or third books, I would spend too much time explaining backstory. After, I drove home and brewed a large pot of Starbucks Pikes Place Coffee. I selected comfortable attire to wear, and poured myself a giant mug of coffee. Took the book off the shelf, and curled up with a soft, fuzzy blanket in my favorite spot. From my favorite leather chair situated in front of the fireplace in my living room, I opened the book and became engulfed in the rich world the author created. I had never heard of this author, nevertheless, the book captured my attention in the first chapter. I simply inhaled the rest of the trilogy. The main character is Azoth, he is a member of the guild called the Black Dragons. His guild is a group of orphans who lives in the slums, called the Warrens. Survival for Azoth is precarious, and he is tired of being terrified of a malicious,
The article I chose deals about the lack of practice in speaking skill in language teaching, and although it refers to Chinese schools, I found it relevant because the situations it refers to are very similar to the ones we face in most of the schools in our country. Since a very powerful motivation to learn a second language is to be able to converse with speakers of that language, speaking seems to be the most important skill to be developed. Although, it is also a huge challenge if we take into count on the one hand, the different micro-skills that learners need to manage, which vary from pronunciation of unfamiliar words to the appropriate use of formal and informal expressions. We will write a custom essay sample on Integrating oral communication skills or any similar topic only for you Order Now Furthermore, the very limited chances that students have to speak English outside the classroom make things harder for them. INTEGRATING ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS. Having a more integrated approach ensuring enough practice in oral communication by including speaking into reading and writing lessons, would be an appropriate option, which would hopefully offer important benefits. StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s acquisition of English could be improved by taking advantage of some interesting topics for reading and writing, which would provide a chance to discuss and test their language. In order to reach this goal, teachers are expected to go beyond the traditional courses and integrate different skills during their lessons. READING TO SPEAK. The activities presented here can helps students notice the difference between what they want to say and what they can really say, and maybe make them focus their attention on meaning first and on form later, and can be used both for intensive ND extensive reading classes. Reading to act. This in an activity in which students act out a story they have Just read, being encouraged to make as many changes as they want to the plot and dialogues, and it is organized as follows: Divide the class into small groups and assign each one a director to organize rehearsals. Students scan the story focusing on how to express it through their acting. They have a first rehearsal relying only on their memories. They scan the story again, searching for some variations and take some notes that an be used for the second rehearsal. A contest is held to determine who offered the best performance. An acting project helps to achieve four-skill integration and makes the reading task much more interesting. 2. Ã¢â¬â Reading to debate. Students are required to select an article containing a controversial issue which they can discuss about. The activity is organized as follows: Students are formed by pairs and agree on which position they will take. They scan the text without taking notes and debate about it, using quotes to support their arguments. They scan the text again, searching for useful expressions and ideas to support their position. Note taking is allowed so later they can participate in the debate by small groups or as a whole class, being encouraged to personalize their comments. This activity can improve studentÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of the issue and helps them to defend their point of view about it. 3. Ã¢â¬â Reading to interview. This activity is a lot more flexible and can include texts of different genres and it is organized as follows: Students scan the text to get all the ideas they can. They form pairs with the roles of interviewer and interviewee. The first one has to ask questions related which can be answered using facts from the reading. They check the text again looking for further questions which can be noted down this time. They switch roles or find new partners if they want to and perform the interview again. A competition is held to decide on the pair who best represented the text. This activity provides students with an opportunity to orally express what they got from a text. How to cite Integrating oral communication skills, Papers
Saturday, April 25, 2020
The Battle of Okinawa Essay Few events have shaped the world in such violent and multitudinous ways as the events of World War II. Probably the most profound event was the use of atomic weapons on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This decision was not made lightly and many factors led up to that ultimate outcome, one of those key factors was the Battle of Okinawa. During the Battle of Okinawa the Japanese fought so tenaciously down to almost the last man that it sealed their fate and convinced the President of the United States to use atomic weapons to end the war. The road leading to the invasion of Okinawa, also known as Operation Iceberg (Rottman), began almost a decade earlier. In 1937 Japan, which already had troops stationed in Manchuria, invaded China in an attempt to control the entire eastern coast and seize vast amounts of resources and land. As Japan continued its march south, it also seized control of French Indochina and the islands of the Dutch East Indies. In an attempt to stop Japan the President of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt, ordered an oil embargo and froze all Japanese assets in the U. S. This action was the prime contributor to the December 7th attack on the American fleet stationed at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, which entered the U. S. into World War II (Esposito). In order to stop the Japanese advance through the Pacific the U. S. adopted an Ã¢â¬Å"island hoppingÃ¢â¬ campaign that called for invasions of key islands throughout the Pacific Ocean that would cut off the Japanese supply lines and eventually take the war to the Japanese homeland. In April of 1945, it was determined that Okinawa would be the next island to be invaded. We will write a custom essay sample on The Battle of Okinawa specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Battle of Okinawa specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Battle of Okinawa specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The actual planning for Operation Iceberg began almost one year prior in May 1944. There were many considerations that had to be weighed before the decision was made on invading Okinawa. The decision for invasion was between Okinawa and the Formosa, an island 100 miles off the coast of China. Both options had their share of pro and cons, but Formosa was ultimately deemed too risky due to itsÃ¢â¬â¢ large size and ability to be easily reinforced and it was agreed that Okinawa would be the next objective (Rottman). Okinawa was a strategic island in the fact that its three main airfields were being used by Japanese fighters to harass Allied bombing missions heading toward mainland Japan. If the island could be secured then not only would air superiority be complete but that the U. S. could then use those same airfields to strike Japan as Okinawa is located only 320 nm from JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s southernmost island of Kyushu. Perhaps more importantly though is the fact that Okinawa would be used as an ideal staging ground for Operation Olympic, the planned invasion of mainland Japan. Olympic had been scheduled for November of 1945 and would have required the use of 14 combat divisions and the largest naval armada in world history (Hallas). However, due to the actions on Okinawa, Operation Olympic was never launched. The Allied forces involved in Iceberg totaled 182,000 combatants divided into five divisions of the U. S. Tenth Army. The U. S. Army divisions involved were the 7th, 27th, 77th, 81st, and 96th , and two Marine divisions, the 1st and 6th, fought on the island while the 2nd Marine Division remained as an amphibious reserve and was never brought ashore. The invasion was also supported by almost 1,500 U. S. and British ships. The Japanese forces on Okinawa totaled over 130,000 men divided into about 2 ? divisions. The primary combat units were the 62nd and 24th Divisions as well as the 44th Independent Mixed Brigade, all three units comprised the Japanese 32nd Army (Rottman). There are two key roles in any armed conflict, that of the combatant and that of the commander. For the Allies the overall commander was Admiral Raymond Spruance, he was in charge of Task Force 50 also known as TF 50, which was a robust mixture of massive Navy, Marine and Army forces. Under TF 50 was Vice Admiral Richmond Turner who was in charge of all Allied ships within the Task Force, his sister commander was Lieutenant General Simon Buckner Jr, who commanded all land forces involved in the invasion and was also the highest ranking American killed in the battle. The Tenth U. S. Army was commanded by Lieutenant General John Hodge and his sister commander of the Marines from the III Amphibious Corps was Lieutenant General Roy Geiger who actually took over for Lieutenant General Buckner after his death on 18 June, 1945 and became the only Marine officer to ever command a field army (Rottman). The Japanese counterparts to the Allied commanders included Lieutenant General Mitsuru Ushijima. He was the commander of the Japanese 32nd Army and was considered a mentor by his subordinates and was described as Ã¢â¬Å"coolly appreciative of realityÃ¢â¬ (Yahara). Ushijima selected Major General Isamu Cho as his chief-of-staff. Cho had a very different type of personality than Ushijima and was known for his strong emotions, enthusiasm, and boldness. Both Ushijima and Cho committed ritual suicide, hara-kiri, on June 23, 1945 after the bulk of the 32nd Army had been decimated by U. S. forces. While of comparatively junior rank, an equally important, and unique, member of the 32nd Army staff was Colonel Hiromichi Yahara. Yahara was the senior operations and planning officer and was the highest ranking officer to survive the battle, and he advocated a war of attrition, which called for a carefully planned defensive strategy rather than an all-out attack (Tzeng). The invasion began on April 1, 1945, this was both Easter Sunday and April FoolÃ¢â¬â¢s Day. It was known as L-day and nicknamed Love Day by the troops coming ashore. Even with over 100,000 troops at his disposal, Ushijima did not defend the beaches beyond some harassing indirect fire from artillery. This was done, for the most part, due to a change in the Japanese tactics and to conserve his resources. In previous island campaigns the standard Japanese tactic was to try and stop the landing at the waterÃ¢â¬â¢s edge, this proved to be futile and a waste of men when defending against relentless allied bombardment. Ushijima, and his superiors in Japan, knew that the Allies had superior firepower and personnel and that the entire war as well as the battle for Okinawa was in peril, so a new scheme of battle needed to be developed. It was believed that the Americans could not stomach losing large numbers of troops, so the plan was to make the Americans pay dearly for each yard they move forward. The expected result was thought to be that America would be open to negotiations and that Japan could set conditions for the war to end. To help emphasize this concept UshijimaÃ¢â¬â¢s staff delivered a message to all Japanese fighters Ã¢â¬Å" One Plane for One Warship. One Boat for One Ship. One Man for Ten of the Enemy or One Tank (Hallas). Ã¢â¬ This created a paradigm shift in Japanese warfare. In earlier battles the Japanese, following the bushido code, would lead massive banzai charges against their enemy and sacrifice their lives in an attempt to overrun the oppositionÃ¢â¬â¢s lines. This usually resulted in a total loss of Japanese lives and rarely captured did they capture their objective with this tactic. In Okinawa, however, this was discouraged and men were instead instructed to fight to the last man and not to launch the infamous banzai charge. The only exceptions to this rule were to be one man suicide satchel charges on American tanks and the kamikaze attacks carried out by the Japanese Air Force on the Allied fleet in the surrounding waters. This new static defensive tactic called for massive cave and tunnel construction throughout most of southern Okinawa and used the natural landscape of ravines, cliffs and tunnels and was referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"Prairie dog warfareÃ¢â¬ by Buckner. The most prominent example of this was the clash on Japanese main defensive line called the Shuri Line. This was a defensive network of caves and natural barriers that were tied in to Shuri Castle, the ancient capital of Okinawa and the 32nd Army Headquarters. The Shuri line was the 32nd ArmyÃ¢â¬â¢s main line of defense and stretched across the width of the southern portion of Okinawa, approximately 5 miles in width. On the western side of the Shuri Line, where the fighting was most fierce, was a collection of small hills that were nicknamed Sugar Loaf, Horseshoe and Halfmoon by the Americans. The assault on these three hills caused large amount of casualties in a short span of time and were considered the most costly to the Allies at a total of over 3,000 killed in action in a six day period (Lacey). In a last ditch effort to push the Allies back Ushijima, at the protest of Yahara, launched a counteroffensive which resulted in 7,000 casualties for the Japanese in one day. This action further weakened the already strained Japanese defense and on May 19,1945 the Shuri Line was broken and the main defense was lost. The remaining Japanese forces retrograded and fighting in small pockets of resistance still waged for over a month, and the island wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t finally declared secured until July 2, 1945. Fighting was not only limited to the southern portion of the island alone and while the northern portion had only a notional resistance the island of Ie Shima, located 5 miles off the central west coast, proved to be a very difficult objective to take and produced almost 1,500 U. S. casualties. It was at Ie Shima that the famous war correspondent, Ernie Pyle, was killed while reporting on the battle (Rottman). In stark difference to the land tactics of limited suicide charges, the tactics in the waters surrounding Okinawa was a much different story. The Japanese had used kamikaze attacks in great numbers months earlier in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, now in Okinawa they would be used on an even greater scale. In an attempt to increase the radar range of the Allied fleet, destroyers were sent on radar picket duty and would form a large circle around the aircraft carriers and provide cover. It was these destroyers that took the brunt of the kamikaze aircraft and suicide motorboat attacks. Over 1,500 Japanese aircraft were used in seven major attacks and multiple smaller attacks on American shipping. This resulted in 368 Allied ships damaged and 28 sunk with the human toll at 4,900 killed and 4,800 wounded (Reilly). The U. S. Navy sustained greater casualties in this operation than in any other battle of the war. On April 6, 1945 the Japanese sent the largest battleship ever built, Yamato, on a suicide mission to beach itself on the southern shores of Okinawa and use its massive guns on the Allies. This was called Operation Ten-Go, or Heaven One, by the Japanese. However, the Yamato and most of her 9 escorts were spotted by American submarines and were sunk by U. S. Navy aircraft without ever coming close to their objective (Reilly). On July 2, 1945 after 82 days of the most vicious fighting of World War II the battle was declared officially over. The final costs of the battle were staggering to both sides, the Allies had over 12,500 soldiers, sailors and Marines killed or missing with over 65,000 wounded. The costs in materials were 36 ships sunk and 763 aircraft lost. The Japanese had over 120,000 soldiers and sailors killed with only 7,400 wounded and taken prisoner, they had also lost 16 ships and over 4,000 aircraft (Rottman). Not to be forgotten is the civilian toll, the native Okinawans had lost over 100,000 people, many had been forced into military service or forced to commit mass suicide by the Japanese military when it appeared that the Allies were closing in (Lacey). Ninety percent of the buildings on the island were completely destroyed, and the lush tropical landscape was turned into a vast field of mud, lead, decay and maggots (Tzeng). However, the military value of Okinawa had exceeded all hope, it provided a fleet anchorage, troop staging areas, and airfields in close proximity to Japan. While the American military began preparations for Operation Olympic the President of the United States, Harry S. Truman, pondered a monumental decision. There were two options for victory: one was Operation Olympic which had an estimated cost of 109,000 allied dead/missing and 347,000 wounded, the other was the use of the new super weapons later known as Fatman and Little Boy. After the carnage of Okinawa and in order to justify the use of atomic weapons in lieu of the land invasion President Truman stated Ã¢â¬Å"I do not want another Okinawa from one end of Japan to another (Tzeng)Ã¢â¬ Okinawa, with such high stakes, was only a fraction of the size of mainland Japan. The nation would savagely resist an invasion despite the depletion of her resources after her defeat at Okinawa. If the United States launched the invasion, the estimated million casualties, from both sides, and drainage of resources incurred would be unimaginable. After much deliberation the decision was made by the president to use the new super weapons and force Japan to surrender quickly instead of dragging out a protracted war for even longer. On August 6th and 9th of 1945 the first and only atomic weapons used on civilian populations were dropped and 6 days later on August 15th 1945, Japan surrendered unconditionally and the war was over. It is truly ironic how the actions of the Japanese soldiers on Okinawa directly impacted their homeland in ways they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have imagined. They defended Okinawa so strongly in an attempt to get America to end the war and negotiate peace. They were trying to save their countrymen, but by doing so they had also shown their resolve to never give up, never give in and to fight to the last man. They had given a glimpse of what could be expected if an attack of the homeland was launched. Their plan had, in turn, helped make a decision that had such a profound impact that it has never been made since.